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Linux Tutorial For Beginners – Basic Linux Commands

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You will Learn in This Linux Tutorial

What is Linux?

Linux is an Operating System based on UNIX that was created in 1991 by Linus Torvalds. It is free, open source operating system (Open source refers to a program or software in which the source code is available for use and/or modification from its original design free of charge.) Linux commonly used as a server, but Linux is also used in desktop computers, Smartphones, gaming consoles “From wristwatches to Supercomputer”, is the popular description of Linux capabilities.

About Linux Kernel, RHCSA, RHCE

Where is Linux?

Linux is used as a leading operating system on servers and used in big systems such as mainframe computers, Super computer. Linux OS used in the TOP 500 supercomputer. Many top companies uses Linux like GOOGLE, Facebook, Amazon, NASA, IBM, Twitter, almost company they using Linux machine as there web server etc. company using Linux machines.

Why We Use Linux?

  • In Linux we have freedom to change operating system.
  • We have choices Many Operating System is based on Linux (Ubuntu Red Hat Fedora Kali etc.)
  • Free Operating System no need to pay anything.
  • Linux is fast beautiful Operating system.
  • Have High stability will stay a long time.
  • More secure than any other Operating system like Microsoft.
  • We can Runs on any hardware platform.
  • Linux is virus free (Does not support .exe extension by defaults).
  • We can customization OS as per need.
  • Linux now comes with user friendly installation and setup programs.
  • Linux Learning can we fun if you want to learn there is no limitation for the learner.
  • We can use Linux for multiple purposes.
  • Many companies have multiple profiles based on Linux.
  • Many companies are switching Microsoft to Linux.
  • You want to explore new wide features.
  • We should use Linux because we don’t sign any agreement with Microsoft that we will use it.

Best Way To Learn Linux

Difference between Linux and Microsoft Windows?

  • Linux is freely available on the internet, for Microsoft we have to pay.
  • Linux has more security feature that you can find any other operating system.
  • Linux customization is possible, but we cannot customize Microsoft windows operating system.
  • Linux is almost virus free and we all know about virus problems in Microsoft OS.
  • Linux used everywhere from wristwatches to Supercomputer” but Microsoft has limited area.
  • Linux have stability; will not crash easily, but in Microsoft we cannot say that.
  • Linux software also freeware like open office, but at Microsoft we have to pay for Microsoft office. Linux feature updated faster than Microsoft.
  • Linux does not need to be rebooted to maintain performance levels, Windows need to be rebooted time to time.
  • Linux has single purpose programs that are not affected to other programs but in Microsoft if one will get crashed you will get error everywhere.
  • Linux support almost device drivers, but at Microsoft we need to install driver for devices.
  • Linux has different file system like ext2, ext3 ext4 xfs more reliable than Microsoft FAT NTFS
  • Linux has separate directories for each and every work, All users have a separate home directory there they can work but in Microsoft user can work anywhere.

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How to Learn Linux?

In this linux tutorial, we will start from the beginning and will go to the advanced level of Linux. As we know Linux is available in both interfaces GUI (Graphical User Interface) & TUI (Terminal user interface).

To learn GUI mode you have spent some time with Linux it’s easy to operate and it can be learned by self easily. But when we  talk about learning Linux it always means Basic Linux Commands of Linux.

Learning will be easy when we know how to use Linux commands with proper syntax. So now I am going to tell you about Basic Linux Commands.

To run commands we have to login in Linux machine

There are two modes of login

1.            Graphical Mode  (Alt+ctrl+F1 or F7)

2.            Text Mode (Alt+Ctrl+F2….F6)

In case of Graphical Mode

Right-click on Desktop -> Open terminal (Terminal is a command prompt for Linux)

In the case of Text Mode

localhost login: root

Password: RedHat

[root@localhost~]#

[User @ computer name PWD ] #

# – root user powerful user account

$ – normal user account

Basic Linux Commands

Some of the Common Basic system commands are as follow:

# cat > filename:- The ‘cat’ command is used to create a file

  Type text

Ctrl +D (for save & exit)

# cat filename: to view the file content.

#touch filename: to create empty files

# mkdir folder name: to create directory

#cd  foldername : To change directory

#cd .. : To come out from the directory

#cd : to jump to root directory

#cd – : to jump to the previous directory

#cd / : to come out all directory

# Date : to display date and time

# Cal : to display the calendar

# Cal 11 2019: display the calendar of Month 11 and year 2019

# Clear : To clear the screen

# reset: to clear screen

# ls : to list directory contents

color identification

blue : Directories

White : Files

Green : Executable files

Red ; Zip files, rpm, tar file

Different switches used with “ls” command

# ls –l or ll: used for the long listing including file and directory permission

                (-) : file

                (d) : Directory

                (l) : Symbolic link

# ls –a  : shows all hidden files and directory. Any file followed by (.) is a hidden file

# ls –al : show all hidden files and directory with the long listing or whole description

# ls –d : shows all the directory

# rm filename : to remove the file

# rm –f filename : to remove file forcefully

# rmdir foldername : Only empty directory will be deleted

# rm –r foldername : to remove the folder

# rm –rf foldername : to remove folder forcefully

# pwd: Present  working directory

# who am I: display the information of the current terminal  

# who : display all login user in the terminal.

# w : display logged users

# history: it shows all the command you have used.

History can store the last 1000 command which you have run. If you want to change

# vim /etc/profile

HIST SIZE =100

Save and exit

# history –c ( to clear all the previous command to reside in history)

# !! : repeat last command

# !r : the last command executed with ‘r’ character

# !20 : executed that no. of command

Moving And Renaming File And Directory

mv: move /rename files and directory

# mv [option] file destination

# mv old name new name

multiple files can be moved at a time if the destination is a directory

# mv [option] file1 file2 file3 destination

# mv [source add] [destination add]

GETTING HELP:  

The command that is used to get the help are discussed as:

# What is command: Display a short description of the command, it uses a database that is updated nightly. Often not available immediately after installation.

#  –help: Display usage summary and argument list

# man: for help

#info: for help

Both provide documentation for command. Almost every command has a “man” page. The collection of pages is called the Linux manual.

Viewing Text Page

#more [option] [filename]

#less [option] [filename]

Example:

# less abc.txt

scroll with arrows/PgUp /PgDown

we can also use “less” with pipe |

These are common commands of Linux to do practice of it after that we will continue to learn other Basic Linux commands like copy paste commands, process related command, networking related commands and many more.  

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